In pharmaceutical domain, until about 30 years ago the term “process R&D” meant just making a chemical process scalable. Most of the brighter chemists chose to spend their time in “discovering” molecules rather than studying how to make them on scale, both efficiently and safely. Adequate attention was not paid to the critical aspects of scale up like safety, waste management or energy efficiency. The pharmaceutical industry even justified their methods by hypothesizing that the benefit of the end product (life-saving medicines), far outweighed the concerns over the amount of waste that was generated. As a result, the pharmaceutical industry became one of the worst performing sectors when measured in terms of waste produced per unit of product made. Over the years, the pharma industry have recognized the need to change and develop more efficient processes. Thus was born a new field of chemistry called process research.